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Environmental Science AP - Chapter 12 Study Guide

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  1. World Population Distribution Trends

    US Population Shifts Since 1800

    1. Shift to large central cities
    2. Shift from large cities to small cities and suburbs
    3. Shift from north/east to south/west

    Urban Growth

  2. Urban Environmental Problems

    Positive Effects of Urbanization

  3. Transportation Options - individual

    walking/biking

    pros
    cons

    automobiles

    pros
    cons

    Transportation Options - mass

    rapid rail

    pros
    cons

    light rail

    pros
    cons

    high-speed rail

    pros
    cons

    MAGLEV - magnetic track - train doesn't touch track

    pros
    cons

    Sandia train - carries electromagnetic coils onboard

    pros

    cons

    Buses

    pros

    cons

    Positive Feedback Loop Policies for Increasing Automobile Dependence

    Possible Negative Feedback Loop Policies for Decreasing Automobile Dependence

  4. ecological land-use planning
    Method for deciding how land should be used; development of an integrated model that considers geographical, ecological, health, and social variables
    conventional land-use planning
    Method for deciding how land should be used; encourages economic growth without restriction

    Local governments can control the rate of development by zoning and limiting the number of permits and utility hookups.

    Obstacles to Economic Land-Use Planning

  5. The urban infrastructure in the US is getting worn out. It wasn't high quality work in the first place, it's old, and it's been neglected for decades. The money for fixing up the infrastructure isn't there, funding gets cut every year, and citizens are opposed to raising taxes.

  6. If the municipality responds to an increase in cars by accomodating those cars, even more cars will come. One way to counteract that loop is to refuse to expand the automobile infrastructure. A better way is to ban cars from city centers.
  7. We can improve urban life by:

    Curitiba, Brazil is a city of 2.1 million. As a densely populated area, it doesn't have big lawns. Zoning regulations concentrate homes along transportation routes and designate parks in flood-prone areas. An efficient bus system replaces the car. The city has 1.5 million trees, and none may be cut down without being replaced by two more. The downtown area is off-limits to cars, and abandoned factories have been converted to recreational facilities. Curitiba has implemented all five approaches.

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