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Text Structure/Formatting Elements

These are the formatting elements. They are split into two main groups plus two tags:

  • Logical Formatting
  • Physical Formatting
  • Preformatted Text: The <PRE> Tag
  • The <FONT> Tag

  • Logical Formatting

    Logical Formatting indicates the reason for formatting, not how to format. The browser chooses the actual redering. For example, <EM> indicates emphasized text. A graphical browser such as Netscape would italicize the text. You can also use physical formatting (<I>) to italicise text, but that wouldn't have any effect in a speech browser while <EM> would.
    Most of these are computer related, but <EM> and <STRONG> can be used in place of <I> and <B> in many cases.

    You must put closing tags for all formatting. attributes

    Tag Used for Samples Graphical Effect
    (in my browsers)
    <EM> emphasis text sample italics MSIE 2.0
    italics MSIE 3.0
    italics Netcape 3.0
    italics Netscape 4.05
    italics Mosaic 3.0
    <STRONG> strong emphasis text sample bold MSIE 2.0
    bold MSIE 3.0
    bold Netscape 3.0
    bold Netscape 4.05
    bold Mosaic 3.0
    .           .           .
    <CITE> citation text sample italics MSIE 2.0
    italics MSIE 3.0
    italics Netscape 3.0
    italics Netscape 4.05
    italics Mosaic 3.0
    <Q> short inline quote text sample none MSIE 2.0
    none MSIE 3.0
    none Netscape 3.0
    none Netscape 4.05
    none Mosaic 3.0
    <CODE> computer code fragment text sample monospaced font MSIE 2.0
    monospaced font MSIE 3.0
    monospaced font Netscape 3.0
    monospaced font Netscape 4.05
    bold monospaced font Mosaic 3.0
    <KBD> text to be entered text sample bold monospaced font MSIE 2.0
    bold monospaced font MSIE 3.0
    monospaced font Netscape 3.0
    monospaced font Netscape 4.05
    italics, reduced font Mosaic 3.0
    <SAMP> samples:
    program output, script, etc.
    text sample monospaced font MSIE 2.0
    monospaced font MSIE 3.0
    monospaced font Netscape 3.0
    monospaced font Netscape 4.05
    bold monospaced font Mosaic 3.0
    More tags and more info -- HTML 4.0 -- Structured Text

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    Physical Formatting

    This formatting gives specific directions to the browser. Many only work in graphical browsers.

    You must put closing tags for all formatting. attributes

    Tag Effect Sample Text
    <B> bold text sample
    <BIG> enlarges font text sample
    <I> italics text sample
    <SMALL> reduces font text sample
    <S>
    <STRIKE>
    strikethrough text sample
    text sample
    <SUB> subscript text sample
    <SUP> superscript text sample
    <TT> monospaced font
    (TeleType)
    text sample
    <U> underline text sample

    I'm afraid to download MSIE 4. Does anyone know if there's an uninstall option? ><

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    Preformatted Text: The <PRE> Tag

    This tag is used to display all the spacing exactly as it appears in the source code. Tabs, spaces, line returns, etc., will all show up. However, the font will be monospaced. You must type the closing tag, </PRE> at the end of the text you want formatted. attributes
    Samples:

    You can use <PRE> to make ASCII art--
    
    	           __
    	           ||\_
    	          /||  \_
    	         / ||    \_
    	        /  ||      \_
    	       /   ||        \_
    	      /    ||          \_
    	     /_____||____________\
    	  _________||_____________________
    	  \                              / \
    	   \                            /|  |
    	~~~~\~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/~~~~
    
    You     in         However,
    can     columns    I
    write   without    recommend
    words   tables.    tables.
    
    Tables
    do
    a
    better
    job
    of
    organizing
    your
    info.
    
    Be careful with this tag.     Some browsers may not wrap text. (Like MSIE.)
    
    	You can indent your
    text, if you don't mind any font 
    changes in certain browsers.
    Of course, it's a lot easier
    to indent with CSS.
    

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    The <FONT> Tag

    This tag is used to control the font of the text. It adds no structural element whatsoever, and has been deprecated in HTML 4.0 in favor of style sheets. (Means you aren't supposed to use it anymore.) However, since there is no other way of setting fonts in older browsers such as Netscape Navigator 3, the tag has been included in the transitional specification. You must type the closing tag at the end of your formatted text. Remember that you can nest tags. attributes
    Samples:
    Red text small red text more red text Blue text script blue text (providing you have the font)more blue text

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    Fantasia
    Fantasia___@yahoo.com (That's Fantasia___@yahoo.com with three _'s. "_~)